The threat of reducing play time for young children

Discussion in 'General Education' started by Upsadaisy, Sep 7, 2016.

  1. Upsadaisy

    Upsadaisy Moderator

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    This is an excellent article. What a world we live in.

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news...-preschoolers-and-the-rise-in-sensory-issues/

    One paragraph:
    Preschool years are not only optimal for children to learn through play, but also a critical developmental period. If children are not given enough natural movement and play experiences, they start their academic careers with a disadvantage. They are more likely to be clumsy, have difficulty paying attention, trouble controlling their emotions, utilize poor problem-solving methods, and demonstrate difficulties with social interactions. We are consistently seeing sensory, motor, and cognitive issues pop up more and more in later childhood, partly because of inadequate opportunities to move and play at an early age.
     
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  3. Backroads

    Backroads Aficionado

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    I wholeheartedly agree with this. I think many a school, with the best of intentions, makes this worse. My own school is an example. We're Title 1, and in an effort to make sure these disadvantaged kids have the best academics, recess, while still quite sufficient, is encouraged to be a first-resort punishment in kindergarten and the head kinder teacher is vehemently against any play in the kindergarten classrooms. And she truly does mean well and is very passionate about poor students. It's just... we later get kids with serious behavior and coordination problems. On top of this, our school board is often pointing out families into academics-only preschool programs.
     
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  4. Caesar753

    Caesar753 Multitudinous

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    As a secondary teacher, I am not an expert in early childhood education. I do, however, have a small child at home, and I can see how important playtime factors into her learning. She uses her imagination and does make-believe all the time, often inventing scenarios that she has never encountered in real life, like going hunting for spiders in a cave, building a snowman (we don't really have snow were I live, and my kid has never seen it), or fixing her toy vacuum cleaner with various tools like crayons or shoelaces in the place of a screwdriver. She may have first learned about these things from the books that we read or from Paw Patrol :p, but it is the opportunity to play and do that makes everything stick in her mind and memory. It makes me so sad to see how academic everything has become when it comes to the early years of education. I remember my own experience in preschool and Kindergarten, and what I remember was playing, doing, climbing, singing, touching things that were soft or scratchy, smelling and tasting things that were sweet or sour, all of that. I can't imagine being so little and having to sit down and read, listen, and do worksheets all day, even with the most energetic and empathetic teacher.
     
  5. Upsadaisy

    Upsadaisy Moderator

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    I know. We fill all those crucial times with stuff they shouldn't yet be dealing with, simultaneously depriving kids of the benefits that developmentally appropriate activities would provide. I miss the focus on 'developmentally appropriate' as a measure of value.
     
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  6. tchr4vr

    tchr4vr Comrade

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    And what is so silly about all this--in the lower grades, many schools are eliminating playtime in lieu of academics, but up here in high school, they are always encouraging us to "play" with our kids--games, movement, etc, as way to help them learn and remain focused. So, which is it? All the heads need to get together and make up their minds.
     
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  7. EdEd

    EdEd Aficionado

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    I also value play, but think there a lot of hours in the day to accomplish this. While not all children may have the opportunity to play with as many kids of the same age, if we determine that certain (developmentally appropriate) academic activities are appropriate for younger kids, it makes sense to use school for those things, and expect play (and many other important developmental activities) to occur outside of those hours.

    To me, its similar to the argument about independent reading time. It's no doubt important, but not as important to take up precious instructional minutes during class when it can occur outside of class.
     
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  8. Caesar753

    Caesar753 Multitudinous

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    I'm not opposed to academic activities for small children. Where I struggle is in that many academic activities involve sitting: listening to a story, coloring, matching games, etc. I think that there is value in play, actual academic value, that is being ignored in favor of strict, traditional, formal reading and math education in the early years. Building tall structures with large foam blocks, for example, most definitely relates to STEM skills, plus it allows kids to work on their gross motor skills, plus it can allow for practice working with a partner or on a team. To the untrained eye, though, it probably just looks like free play.

    What I see at the secondary level is that students are being asked to problem-solve (we do a lot of PBL) and get creative in their thinking. We focus a lot on STEM, but we also heavily emphasize literacy--most of our students are low performers. The problem for these students is that they lack the experience necessary to be successful problem-solvers, probably because they haven't really had to do much of it before, at least not in any sort of real scenario that didn't involve a worksheet with a defined answer. They often just shut down when things start to get challenging, which is usually at the very beginning of the activity. I feel like if they had been given more opportunities in their early years to try, fail, and try again all on their own, with full freedom of movement and creative license, they'd be better off as older students.

    With my own kid, I'm pretty willing to let her try just about anything that isn't inherently unsafe. Sure, honey, you can jump off the couch onto those pillows, but be careful, because if you miss you might hit your head and that will hurt. Sure, honey, you can dip your broccoli into your yogurt if you're into that. And sure, dip your animal crackers in ketchup. You do you. She likes to figure things out for herself, which is probably much more valuable than me deciding for her what is the "right" way to do a thing. I feel a bit of anxiety when I think of her going to school where her teacher may expect her to chill out at a desk for 80% of her day, and I just don't think that's going to go over well for anybody.
     
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  9. mathmagic

    mathmagic Enthusiast

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    I agree with you that there's multiple times/ways in which the play time (and IR, per your analogy) can take place. In my mind though, we must make sure that we don't assume that it will occur outside of class (both play and in your analogy). Times like recess, or small chunks of time in the classroom to independently read, ensures that students will have the opportunities for those social interactions and physical movement (or time to dive into other worlds and gain interest in a variety of books, per the analogy). Not to mention that the movement helps the kids focus in on the instruction.

    It's a balance, as everything else is: minimizing play time and IR time in class to increase instruction time ... and maximizing play time and IR time to the big detriment of instruction time ... both aren't going to serve the kids well. Finding the balance between giving students equal opportunities though is important.

    (For the analogy, in my first two years, since we have a lot less instruction time a week compared to the previous district I subbed/mat-leaved in, I haven't had much of any IR time except for when "done" with tasks. This year, I'm not devoting my entire reading block, but I'm trying to push myself to set aside at least 10-15 minutes a day. Yes, it takes 10-15 minutes away from "instruction", but really, the IR time provides the application of what they learned in the instruction, it gives me time to differentiate and confer with the readers, and it will push better reading habits outside of school.)
     
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  10. Upsadaisy

    Upsadaisy Moderator

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    What I see at the secondary level is that students are being asked to problem-solve (we do a lot of PBL) and get creative in their thinking. We focus a lot on STEM, but we also heavily emphasize literacy--most of our students are low performers. The problem for these students is that they lack the experience necessary to be successful problem-solvers, probably because they haven't really had to do much of it before, at least not in any sort of real scenario that didn't involve a worksheet with a defined answer. They often just shut down when things start to get challenging, which is usually at the very beginning of the activity. I feel like if they had been given more opportunities in their early years to try, fail, and try again all on their own, with full freedom of movement and creative license, they'd be better off as older students. This is spot on, Caesar.
     
  11. lamariposa

    lamariposa Rookie

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    I think a lot of people don't know how extensive the problem with declining recess really is. Especially in certain districts. I was a LTS last year in a school in which the Kindergarten grade level did away with recess. Just like that. They decided they would not have recess anymore. I was boggled. I've also subbed at schools that are extended hours (K-1 get out at 3 and 2-5 get out at 4) and if there's no P.E. teacher that day or if they got pulled to cover then they do not get recess or any outside time. It's worst than people think.
     
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  12. DizneeTeachR

    DizneeTeachR Virtuoso

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    It is hard to believe that recess is so reduced. I remember K and having lots of play. Lots of imagination, problems solving & social skills used. I know when I subbed even the older elem grades loved to earn free time or recess as much as the younger grades. LOL!!!
     
  13. Backroads

    Backroads Aficionado

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    What gets me is there seems to be no research in favor of cancelling recess, yet it keeps happening! So... what is the reasoning?
     
  14. mathmagic

    mathmagic Enthusiast

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    Because if you solely look at the number of instructional minutes, that increases it.

    The problem is, it isn't solely about the quantity, but rather a mix of the quantity and quality. I'd argue (and I think the research backs it up), that the latter suffers when the amount of play is decreased (too much).
     
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  15. EdEd

    EdEd Aficionado

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    This isn't really something that would be researched - "cancelling" something per se. What you'd probably look at is:

    1) Is recess harmful? (If so, that would support cancelling it. Doubt it would be, though)
    2) Are other things found to be more beneficial or impactful? (Here I bet they would be).

    #2 is what would make the argument.
     
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  16. Backroads

    Backroads Aficionado

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    I guess it just seems to be that if I were one of the big dogs in charge of such schedules, I'd be looking at the impact of removing recess. With all the evidence in favor of recess, a school ought to have a really good case for cancelling it.
     
  17. EdEd

    EdEd Aficionado

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    Thanks Caesar & mathmagic for your replies - I think we're probably in a similar position. Definitely not advocating against it, and do think you could incorporate perhaps more structured or guided play within a school setting? Mathmagic - yes, creating spaces for things inside school that may not happen outside school are important, but I think it just comes to priorities - there are many things that should be, but aren't, often done outside of school - social skills training, read alouds, etc. - I think it's just a matter of looking at how much time you have and prioritizing.
     
  18. Backroads

    Backroads Aficionado

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    I know this is totally going on a tangent, but I'm not sure if I agree with this. Practice and application time is crucial for learning and I daresay more important than unnecessary instruction.
     
  19. EdEd

    EdEd Aficionado

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    Yeah I'm with you in terms of the cancelling recess thing - I don't think it makes sense, if for no other reason than developmentally kids just need a break.
     
  20. EdEd

    EdEd Aficionado

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    Practice & application can occur in a variety of ways, including more structured opportunities such as small group reading. There are better and worse ways of doing it. Not saying independent reading is bad, but again - generally less effective per minute than more structured practice & application.
     
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  21. mathmagic

    mathmagic Enthusiast

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    I guess my thought is less about the effectiveness of the time generically, but more: for whom? Tying in some IR time - again, not at the complete detriment of the other practice/application - is vital for some kids whose home lives may not have them reading much of any. For many, the instruction itself won't be as meaningful to them because they are so low with their vocabulary or whatnot. If IR is used as (a part of) the application part of the teaching, it instantly differentiates and provides equity: kids are reading and applying the skills at their own level, and more importantly (in my opinion), developing a love of reading and enjoying the application of the skills...much more meaningful practice to them and that would hopefully stick with them more.
     
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  22. TeacherGroupie

    TeacherGroupie Moderator

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    I've sometimes argued against eliminating recess on grounds of labor law: if school is a kid's work, as is often claimed, why aren't kids as deserving of morning and afternoon breaks as adult wage-earners are?
     
  23. Upsadaisy

    Upsadaisy Moderator

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    I don't think the main point has to do with recess or its lack, but with the structure of early childhood education through kindergarten. There is a lack of acknowledgement of the value of play, not just physical exercise, as education in this population. Having two hours of physical exercise followed by worksheets and basic facts would still be inappropriate.
     
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  24. TeacherGroupie

    TeacherGroupie Moderator

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    I won't disagree with you on that point, 'daisy; the workday argument is primarily for adults who aren't teachers, along the lines of framing the case in terms that will resonate with them.
     
  25. Preschool0929

    Preschool0929 Cohort

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    As a public preschool teacher, it's difficult to balance the needs of students, expectations of parents, and expectations of administration. This year in my state, all public preschool classrooms are being given a rating (on a scale from 1-5) that will be published for parents to see. This rating is based off of how my class LAST year did on their kindergarten entrance testing. So even though I'm supposed to be "play based", I'm still expected to produce kindergarteners who can excel on beginning of the year assessments. For my class, which is primarily special ed., I doubt my "rating" will be high this year.
     
  26. Upsadaisy

    Upsadaisy Moderator

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    How sad.
     
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  27. EdEd

    EdEd Aficionado

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    There are certainly upsides. The downsides are that there are already too few minutes in the day for reading, especially for kids from at-risk backgrounds who may be years behind. IR, from my experience and understanding of the literature base, provides less ROI than more intensive instruction such as small group reading or even class wide DI. There are also plenty of kids, particular the ones who struggle the most and - arguably - may be the ones who aren't receiving those IR opportunities outside the classroom, who won't take advantage of IR because there is less accountability than teacher-led instruction. "IR" as an indirect activity also occurs frequently throughout the rest of the school day - during social studies, etc. It's not "reading for the love of it" and isn't self-selected or leveled, but certainly gets to that point of independent practice, application, etc.

    So, I'm not arguing against it, it's just a matter of weighing it against the value of other types of instruction. I wouldn't make an argument that it has no place in the classroom, but if a teacher were doing 20 minutes less guided instruction in favor of 20 more minutes of IR, I'd say that's likely a mistake. On the other hand, if a teacher were maxing out his/her guided instruction opportunities and using centers with the other students, and wanted to use IR as one of those centers, I think there's merit in that.

    Interestingly, as a complete side note, I'm currently working in a non-school setting doing some less traditional educational stuff, so I'm not one of those types - despite my training and background - who rigidly argues against rigor to the detriment of other activities. In other words, I'm currently banking on some of those less traditional, less structured, "for the love of it" kinds of activities, and not because it's just a "feel good" kind of thing, but because I think they're important. So, I hope I'm not coming off as too narrow when not fully supporting IR and play - I just think we need to set priorities and be clear about evidence-based ROI when structuring instruction.
     
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  28. mathmagic

    mathmagic Enthusiast

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    I definitely can agree with making sure that the ROI is the greatest (at least so long as that's long-term ROI)! Out of true curiosity, do you have links to any research relating to the topic? I'm trying to do more reading of research around many practices I either do myself, see in others, my team is doing, etc..., so I can truly orient myself to what's best for kids both in terms of research and lifelong learning. (I wish there was more research on the use of AR, but alas, there isn't much)
     
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  29. Upsadaisy

    Upsadaisy Moderator

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    I'm all for as much reading as possible. I always read aloud at least 30 minutes a day. But, I always had small classes and lots of flexibility. Again, though, the article is aimed at the youngest kids and the repercussions occur in later years.
     
  30. MrsC

    MrsC Multitudinous

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    This week, I gave my class one of the highest compliments I'll ever give them (and they probably don't realize it yet). I told them how thrilled and proud I was with their determination and willingness to make mistakes. We were working on some collaborative problem-solving and exploration activities in math. Some of them were able to come up with multiple approaches, and solutions, fairly easily, while others kept hitting road block after road block and were clearly struggling. However, no one gave up. Not one. Not my student who is reading at least 5 years below grade level, not my new student who's struggling socially, not the kids who are traditionally "D" students in math and know it. They have fairly extensive background experience in working to figure things out, in not always being told, "This is the way we do this and this is the correct answer."
     
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  31. EdEd

    EdEd Aficionado

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    Definitely agree about the long-term ROI - sometimes it's hard to know.

    In terms of research, I think there's a good amount, but it may not directly answer all of your questions. There are a few different kinds/levels of research that I think could come into play, each which might contribute. Here are some thoughts, most of which you probably already know, but because it's a public forum for others to read. I'll use independent reading (IR) as an example:

    •Strategy-level research: Evaluating a specific strategy, hopefully with an experimental design. In this case, you'd be looking for research directly evaluating the effectiveness of IR. Pretty straightforward.

    •Package-level research: This would involve evaluating an instructional package or program such as Wilson Reading System or using small groups in reading class - it's not an evaluation of singular strategies, but of a combination of them. There is some sense that the component strategies contribute in some way to the overall success of the package, but not a guarantee. It could be that one strategy involved is playing a larger role, the instructional context or other mediator, etc. So, for example, if you found an instructional package (let's say Daily 5) that included the use of IR, you might have some sense that IR can be part of an effective instructional approach. Of course, IR may not really be an "active ingredient," which is why you can't rely on this level of research for individual strategies.

    •Program-level research: This would involve evaluating an educational context that includes one or more of the variables you're looking at. So, if you're interested in how IR plays with other instructional types, and whether or not it can be part of an effective overall program, this may be helpful.

    •Component-level research: This involves researching a particular sub-element or component of an intervention, or perhaps the "active ingredient" in the intervention.

    •Program evaluation (DIY): This is data you collect yourself that contributes to the evidence base that what you're doing works. It could involve and of the above 3, but the main advantage is that it doesn't rely solely on research done with other kids, in other contexts, etc. In your situation, this would involve not just informally saying that you value IR, but actually collecting data that specifically speaks to the comparative effectiveness of IR as an isolated variable (more below). Essentially, you're verifying that the research you've selected to use in planning your instruction actually works with your students, which means collecting data and evaluating your own instruction. If you're particularly interested in whether a specific strategy works, you could use something called a "multiple baseline across interventions" single-case research design, or even just a simple ABAB design, right within your own class to assess whether a particular strategy is contributing anything. This is a good book/resource for that.

    I think a lot of people looking for research on a topic take a fairly narrow approach by looking for articles or books that focus primarily on the topic at hand, such as "The effectiveness of Independent Reading (IR) on second-graders" - there may be articles like that, but I think to truly understand the research context surrounding a particular topic, it's important to start off by keeping things broad (reading meta-analyses on reading research in general), then zooming into increasingly narrow packages, programs, & strategies, then re-situating those small pieces of information into the larger context of research that you've become familiar with. Over time, you'll form an increasingly nuanced understanding of how everything works together.

    So........all of this being said (apologies for long-windedness), I think it's fair to ask for specific studies when debating the effectiveness of a strategy, or at least to ask for citations if someone says "the research says," but I also think that synthesis is huge with research, and that involves a fair amount of "professional development" or "clinical judgement." So, when on the hunt for research for IR, here are some other questions that I think would weigh in:

    Now.......after all this, to specifically answer your question, it seems that you have done a lot of this - that you've learned quite a bit, read quite a bit, etc. I might suggest your next step would be to start collecting your own data. Evaluate IR yourself. Here's the 10 second version of how to do it:

    1) Collect weekly CBM (oral reading fluency) data for 4-6 weeks for a group of kids without using IR.

    2) Start using IR every day, and continue to collect weekly CBM data for another 4-6 weeks.

    3) Look for any changes in the data? Did the rate of words correct per minute increase when you introduce IR?

    4) If you noticed a change, and you really want to know if IR made a difference, remove IR for another 4-6 weeks and see if the rate of improvement goes back down to original levels. If it does, you have experimental evidence that IR produced a change. Add back in IR and let it fly, of course continuing to monitor the data.

    Caveat: You brought up a few good points before about long-term change, and having an effect on more than just short-term reading rates. Perhaps you aren't doing IR because it produces better word-level recognition, but because you have a sense that it leads to motivational changes in your students, which may in turn lead to the students' motivational and engagement levels increasing, therefore contributing indirectly to word-level reading, fluency, etc. You may have to find a way to collect data to measure this, as opposed to just an immediate target variable such as ORF. Maybe you conduct a brief survey before, during, and after implementing IR that asks about the students' feelings about reading. Perhaps you give students free choice between different types of activities, and you assess whether kids freely choose to read after participating in IR, etc.

    Alright, how's that for some Sunday reading? ;). I'm going to cut myself off here!
     
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  32. mathmagic

    mathmagic Enthusiast

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    I quickly skimmed it, and will more thoroughly read it at some point this week - thank you for such deep thoughts! (I'd read it thoroughly now, but, well, football game to listen to and lots of prep work for next week :) )
     
  33. EdEd

    EdEd Aficionado

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    Totally understood! First things first ;)
     
  34. YoungTeacherGuy

    YoungTeacherGuy Phenom

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    Most of our primary teachers have center time in which students are able to get up and move around. Many of our teachers use GoNoodle, too, for brain breaks.

    I am a huge believer that unstructured play (specifically during recess time) is so incredibly important! It teaches kids to problem solve, keeps them physically active, and gives them an opportunity let out pent up energy.
     
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  35. teacherintexas

    teacherintexas Maven

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    There is a school in the DFW area that gave their kinders four seperate recesses and were planning on giving them four as first graders this year. I think the plan is, as that class goes on, that each subsequent grade will increase their recess period. I like that approach. It gives upper elementary teachers time to adjust to the new mindset and they can track that class to see how it helps.

    At my school, we do not have a recess scheduled so we decided to take instructional minutes to give the kids one. We also decided that two minutes was the max time we'd have kids sit out due to behavior.
     

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