In this brief article, the authors point out that poverty affects brain development. Poor kids have different brains. However a stimulating environment can help fix the problem. They define stimulation as "not flashcards" but giving children time to explore in a safe environment. The article is more directed towards parents than teachers. Here's a slide show that's designed to help teachers of impoverished children. [You need to click the purple right-pointing-arrow to move through the slides.] Our governments, including President Obama's DOE, ignores poverty as a cause of low test scores and focuses on improving outcomes for impoverished learners by trying to get rid of their teachers, closing their schools and forcing them into for-profit charters. To help close achievement gaps, wouldn't it make more sense to reduce class sizes in impoverished schools? Make sure these schools have adequate resources? Send in experts to help the staff? Establish high-quaity preschool programs in each school district? Put a school nurse in every one of those schools? Make sure they have a library, after-school programs, and a school psychologist? (Last paragraph cloned from Diane Ravitch's blog).