Times are changing and we live in a 21st-century world. The days of just chalkboards and the Socratic Method are on their way out. Lectures need to be engaging and encorporate a variety of learning tools and strategies, such as but not limited to: computer simulations, computer modeling, the utilization of manipulatives to make learning concrete (e.g. I made a bunch of Riemann sums of varying types — left, right, trapezoidal — from cardboard cutouts that look exactly like the textbook versions, except they’re in 3-D so students can actually hold real-life models and they understand them much better; furthermore, I made paper cutouts with design patterns that rotate about a central axis so students can actually see how revolving a cross section about a line generates a solid, etc.), scale models, interactive videos and software, peer-to-peer learning, collaborative learning, project-based learning, etc. Study after study show that students attention spans have lessened with time because of cellphones and social media use. Not to mention, the classroom setting has changed in terms of student behavior, size, and demographics, so the old methods seldom work anymore. Yes, effective teachers should check for understanding along the way by assessing them formatively, but that isn’t always enough. I believe that the best teachers do that AND more. They don’t just rely on direct instruction and leave it at that. They use current data and real-world problems to make learning relatable and active demonstrations to clarify concepts, plus else. They invite guess speakers, they are up and about and require students to critically think and get involved, they are energetic and not condescending and sarcastic, they go beyond the standard curriculum, etc. Finally, they don’t just talk at them and are constantly looking to improve their pedagogy (i.e. not set in their ways and use archaic methods to deliver instruction). There definitely is a minimum that teachers can do, and I don’t think not teaching at all and focusing on coaching counts. Sorry.