I am always hearing different things about what "the research" says, but feel like I've seen none of this "research" myself. Just based on my own experiences, I feel strongly that pull out is much better, despite hearing all four years of undergrad how push in is the only way to go. However, I have no research to back this up. I have a new P this year and she feels that doing only pull-outs leads to a lack of communication between sped and gen ed. I agree that lack of collaboration is a problem- I often talked about this with my previous P and we just couldn't figure out how to build more of this time in without taking instructional time away from students. I offer to meet before/after school, but very few people take me up on this. I'm not at all sure what her "vision" for this is or how much she sees us doing push in vs. pull out. I currently have 4 grade levels with kids in 11 different classrooms. Besides feeling like it's ineffective, I also find push-in to be mind numbingly boring and not a good fit for my skill set, so if the position changes to mostly that I won't stay. Admins, coaches, and "consultants" at my school love to talk about the John Hattie research on effect sizes. Has nothing like this been done for push in vs. pull out? I have done quite a bit of googling over the past few days and am finding absolutely nothing other than a lot of personal opinions ("research" done by just giving teachers opinion surveys) and some stuff that is 20 years old or more. Can anyone help me out with any actual research related to this topic?