I just read that the more adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) a child has, the more likely that child is to misbehave. The theory goes that a child who acts up as a reaction to toxic stress can no more control the bad behavior than a blind child who can not see. If bad behavior is out of the child's control, then punishment only makes things worse: like punishing a blind child for not seeing. Instead of punishment, these traumatized children should be taught in ways to help them learn despite the brain and body changes caused by ACEs. I wonder what my colleagues think about this. Here's free book on the subject.