I teach middle school at a billingual school in Bogotá, Colombia, and I'd like to know if you have any effective techniques for getting ESL kids to speak only in English in class, or if you think that's even a worthy goal. The students are 100% Colombian, so their 1st language is Spanish, but they have English immersion from the time they're in nursery school, so their English is pretty strong by the time they're in middle school. I teach them English Language Arts, not ESL, so they are expected to discuss English literature, non-fiction and media in class. I try to get them to speak only English in class, even when they're talking to their friends, but have failed so far. I present, and periodically reinforce, reasons they should speak English, and ask them for their own reasons. We have a Use of English rubric which gives them good grades for speaking English a lot in class, and bad grades for speaking a lot of Spanish. This has only been minimally effective: they speak English when I'm close enough to hear them, but when I'm on the other side of the room it's back to Spanish. They do speak only in English when they're doing a whole-class discussion. So any advice?