My 3rd grade student has two reading problems that I could use some help with. First, he seems to have absolutely no familiarity with most phonics rules, and he is very weak at vowel digraphs. You'd think he was never exposed to them in the previous two years. He also frequently substitutes one short sight word for another, often leaves off a plural s, sometimes just substitutes another word with the same first letter. This happens when reading aloud and I worry that it is even worse when he reads to himself. He has made a lot of progress in reading, and some in spelling, in the last 6 months of tutoring. Any insight into the cause of either of these? Any suggestions?