I'm curious what your thoughts are on this. My fall semester master teacher used a technique (maybe rick morris?) that changed the idea of "raising your hands" in class. Basically the kids have 4 options: 1) if they have a comment they form a "c" with their hand 2) if they have an answer they form the sign language "a" with their hand 3) if they have a question they form the sign language "i" as in, "I have a question" 4) and if it's a restroom thing, they form an "r" Allegedly it helps cut down on questions not related to whatever you're lecturing on. You can instantly tell who has to use the restroom. And if someone doesn't "get it" you can see they have a valid question. I found from summer school teaching (i did not use her method) I could waste plenty of time calling on kids with their hands raised to : get a drink of water, use the restroom, share an obscene amount of comments (and questions) not related to what we were discussing...i.e. "what's our homework? when is this due? what are we doing next? 'this one time, my step-brother's aunt's neighbor's ex-boyfriend's dog....'" I could EASILY spend 5 minutes (or more) calling on them. Then I would get frustrated and be like "if it's not related to homophones, put your hands down!" how do you handle all the hands raised?