Do esl services legally have to be provided? Is this a state by state thing or federal law? I don't really understand how my school runs this. We are about 90% ELL students of varying English proficiency. We are a transitional bilingual model. In K-2, they offer Spanish literacy classes. The students have the option of taking reading/writing with the ESL teacher in Spanish instead of with their gen ed teacher in English. When they meet their Spanish reading goals, they gradually transition into the English class. All other subjects are taught in English from kindergarten. The idea is that they build their reading skills in their home language first, and then those skills will transfer to their second language (English). Typically, the brightest kids will transition out of Spanish literacy by the end of 1st grade. Most will transition by mid 2nd grade. Students with learning difficulties are often still trying to meet goals by the end of 2nd grade, but classes are not offered in Spanish in 3rd grade no matter what. In 3rd grade and above, they go to a more traditional "language aquisition" class where they reivew English vocabluary and things like that. The problem I see with this is that there are no "language acquisition services" in K-2. They're offering the classes in Spanish, but there are no ELA classes to help them learn English. That doesn't make sense to me. They're counting the Spanish literacy classes as the ESL class. Wouldn't K-2 be the time that they need the ELA classes the most? Our state testing starts in 3rd grade. I have 4 3rd graders that are on IEPs. Three of them were "unsatisfactory" on the test. When I looked more closely at their scores, I saw that all 3 were actually proficient in all the reading sections (fiction, non fiction, poetry), but their vocabulary scores were SO low that it caused them to fail the entire test. Our 3rd grade reading scores overall were incredibly low. I started looking up some kids I considered to be "average" and was seeing the same sort of thing- proficient reading sections but vocabulary scores that were causing them to fail the entire test. I know the fact that they are ELL students is definitely causing vocabulary to be a struggle for them. It doesn't make sense that we wouldn't be providing that instruction in k-2. So, is it illegal to not have ELA services (other than reading instruction in Spanish) in K-2? If so, what law says this? I just assumed this was something that had to be provided. If it's not illegal, what do ESL teachers think about the model we're doing? Is there some reasoning I'm not understanding here? I get the whole "build the literacy skills in their first language" thing, but shouldn't we also be helping them learn English alongside that?