# 5/days till subtest II! are you ready?

Discussion in 'Multiple Subject Tests' started by forget-me-not, Jul 10, 2005.

1. ### forget-me-notRookie

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Jul 10, 2005

I want to thank all of you for the great help, especially teachergroupie! i have been studying my fannie off! here's a list of questions for all of you math and science experts!
1. we see a sketch of a bathtub and need to be able to figure out its volume and time for it to fill at a certain rate!
2. also, could someone explain the seasons in a simple way. i know that the earth tilts around the sun, but all of the pictures i have been viewing are a bit confusing for me.
3. how would waves come up in a question and what are we suppose to know about waves? ocean waves? or electromagnetic waves?
4. summer or any soltice? is this in any of the ed hersh books (4th, 5th, 6th grade books), and in what way would they want us to know them?
5. chemical reaction...is this refering to say for instance the periodic table nobel gasses that are located on the very far right side of the table as you are looking at the diagram. nobel gasses are non-reactive, because they are non-metals and do not conduct heat.
6. comets are made of particles of dust and ice (i looked it up !)
7. do you add salt to an icy road to make it melt? like rock salt? but you use rock salt to make ice cream!
8. limestone is made up of organic matter, and calcium carbonate due to runoff water, is this correct?
9. how would one prove that opposite sides of a parallegram are congruent through use of congruent triangles?
10. do we need to understand neap tides, spring tides? does anyone care to explain this? will we need to draw them in a diagram?
11. water and weather off the coast of calif.? is this because when you have a large body of water the temperature stays more constant? and the weather is greatly influenced by this because of the mountains which block out other weather influences? am i close?
12. hot spots in the ocean...are they subduction zones, volcanos or tectonic plates?
13. greatest common multiple and lowest common multiple, could someone explain in a simple way please? i get these confused.
14. the path of the sun in the northern hemisphere during the summer/winter soltices and fall/spring equinox? will we have to explain this and draw it out? can someone give a simple concise explanation?
15. do we need to know that if two hydogens touch they form helium? is that right?
16. ph scale... such as citric being an acid? isn't it an acid? or amonia being a base. what is vineger?
17. dna, is in the nuclues and it contains the genetic information? what else? can anyone elaborate?
18. does anyone know how to prove the sum of all exterior angles of a convex polygon which is 360 degrees?
19. what in the world is a non-euclidean geometry sphere? someone said they thought i was the sum of angles of a triangle that are geater than 180 degrees, not equal to? help please!!!
20. i can't remember what a tree diagram is...is this like a t-chart?
21. petals of a flower are to attract bees to take the pollen elsewhere for pollination. is that right?
22. air pressure question...does air want to travel from high to low pressure in an attempt to make the pressures the same?
23. is rust or fungi on limestone physical aging? i thought limestone was mostly found in caves, and was made of calcium carbonate due to runoff?
24. do we need to know that seeds of plants germinate (roots grow down and the sprouts grow up) due to plants response to gravity which is called geotropism? would they want us to be this specific?
25. lets say there is a plant in a see through container and there are tubes coming out and bubbles inside the container...to describe what is happening would we talk about the chemical reaction of condensation and lack of oxygen. is there a carbon dioxide reaction taking place inside the enclosed container, and what are the tubes for? complex, but this one can be an elementary classroom science experiment to describe what ever is going on. is it respiration? help please!
well that is really enough and i will be so grateful if somebody answers all of the above. these are the ones i am confused about. lets help eachother pass this subtest on sat.

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Jul 11, 2005

4. ### forget-me-notRookie

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Jul 11, 2005

great website teachergroupie! thank you so much! can you tell i am not sleeping by the hour posted? because i am waiting for the other questions to be answered....please

Jul 11, 2005

6. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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<Sigh.>

Let's take the question about salt and ice. What happens here is that salt lowers the temperature at which water solidifies into ice. Salt the road, and the weather has to get colder before the road gets icy. (I never really appreciated why this was valuable till I actually had to DRIVE icy roads: the car won't reliably go where you think you're steering it.) The deal with the rock salt in the ice-cream freezer is actually the same: salting the ice melts some of it, and the brine (liquid) bathes the freezing can much more efficiently than chunks of ice could, but at the same temperature as the ice. The can is metal, which means it conducts cold rather efficiently, which means the ice cream freezes faster. (The paddle in the freezer is there to beat air into the ice cream - makes it less dense and more agreeable to eat.)

You may not hear much more from me tonight, people. Could someone else help answer, please?

7. ### CSETCSETCSETRookie

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Jul 11, 2005

Thank you

Teachergroupie,
You do a nice job helping everybody. Thank you.

8. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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I wasn't fishing for thanks (though you're welcome): I was fishing for help!

Jul 12, 2005

10. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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The Least Common Multiple (LCM) is the smallest number that is a multiple of two or more numbers. Multiples of 6 and 8 include 48, of course, but the least (lowest) common multiple is 24 (6 x 4 and 8 x 3). You can find the least common multiple by listing multiples and circling the common ones (6: 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, ...; 8: 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48...), though it's possibly more efficient to look for factors. Use a factor tree to find the prime factors (6: 2 x 3; 8: 2 x 2 x 2); the LCM will be the product of the shared factors (in this case, just 2) times the product of the unshared factors (3 and 2 x 2), or 2 x 12 = 24. Note that we're looking for a number that's greater than or equal to each of the numbers we start with. And for any pair of numbers, there will be common multiples. LCM is how to find the lowest common denominator of fractions for adding, subtracting, or comparing.

Your confusion with Greatest Common Factor (GCF) is partly terminology (that is, it isn't greatest common MULTIPLE!) Remember that a factor is a number that can DIVIDE another number. The greatest common factor of 6 and 8 is 2: that's the largest number that will divide both of them. Or consider 18 and 24. The prime factorization of 18 is 2 x 3 x 3; the prime factorization of 24 is 2 x 2 x 2 x 3. Circle the shared factors and multiply them (2 x 3), and you get the GCF.

Hope this helps.

11. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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Jul 12, 2005

Which one sounds hottest?

Seriously... "tectonic plates" refers to chunks of Earth's surface floating around on the magma below. California is where a number of these plates come together, which is why we get so many earthquakes. (There's a really nifty Web page of the US Geological Service that tracks earthquakes in pretty much real time at http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/recenteqs/Quakes/quakes0_fault.htm: it lists recent quakes of all sizes, and you can click on a quake to see a map that shows where it was and how big.)

A "subduction zone" is what you get when two tectonic plates collide and one gets pulled under the other. ("Subducting" something is pulling it under.) The plate that goes under is the denser one (because denser things sink); the other plate goes up (because it gets displaced or wedged up by the plate below) and this is one way that mountains are formed.

A "hot spot" in the ocean is where magma is welling upward through the oceanic crust. Hawaii is a chain of islands made as a hot spot in the Pacific moved along - think of a cookie press full of molten dough, and you have more or less the right idea.

12. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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Tides are caused by the moon pulling on the earth. Find a nickel and a penny and lay them on a desk with the penny to the right of the nickel. The penny's the moon and the nickel's the sun. Where the penny is nearest the nickel, it will be high tide. It will also be high tide at the same time on the opposite side of the nickel (your left), and it will be low tide above the nickel and below. (The reason it's high tide on the side opposite the penny is that the moon revolves around the earth - you can model this by pushing the penny in a circular path around the nickel - and the water from the low tide has to go SOMEwhere.)

Spring tides and neap tides bring the sun into the system. We get spring tides - that is, high tides that are especially high - when sun and moon and Earth are all in a line. Find a quarter, put it on the desk; place the penny to its left; place the nickel to the left of the penny. What happens here is that moon and sun are pulling on the water at the same time in the same direction, so the water's pulled harder than usual, so the tide is higher than usual.

Neap tides are high tides that are especially low. Move the penny so that, instead of being between Earth and sun, it's right above Earth. Now the Earth-to-sun and Earth-to-moon lines form a 90-degree angle. The moon is pulling one direction and the sun is pulling at 90 degrees to that: the forces then cancel each other out, and the result is high tides that are pretty low by high-tide standards.

13. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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I think I finally figured out what you're asking. Think first of a standard triangle on a standard piece of paper: three points joined by straight lines, right? The sum of the interior angles of a triangle drawn in a plane is equal to 180 degrees (and this is a very important fact to know: it's helpful in proving, for example, that the triangles that make up the pointy ends of a parallelogram are congruent and therefore that the lengths of the sides are equal).

Now take a Ping-pong ball - a sphere, in other words - and mark three points on its surface about half an inch apart. Draw the straightest possible lines connecting those three points. Cut the triangle out of the Ping-pong ball and flatten it. You'll find that the sides are no longer straight: they curve! And the sum of the interior degrees of THIS triangle is more than 180 degrees.

So it isn't that the sphere is non-Euclidean, but that shapes and lines on its surface may not follow the familiar rules of Euclidean planar geometry.

I would bet against this showing up on the CSET as anything other than a multiple choice question ("Q: When can the sum of the interior degrees of a triangle be greater than 180? A: When the triangle is drawn on the surface of a sphere"). In fact, I would bet against the question showing up at all.

14. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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Fairly close. Water both heats up more slowly and cools off more slowly than either air or land do: turning on the air conditioner in your car does nothing for yesterday's soda, right? So in the summer, when the land gets warm, the ocean is still relatively cool, and heat ALWAYS flows from hotter to cooler (that's the take-home lesson of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, so the land right next to the ocean loses heat. In the winter, the effect is reversed: the land and air cool off drastically, but the ocean stays relatively warmer, so heat flows toward land. The farther inland you get, however, the less strong the effect: Ventura's average daily temperature range is a lot smaller than the range in, say, Castaic Junction. It doesn't have all that much to do with mountains. (Mountains are more about precipitation.)

15. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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As I type, I am munching salt-and-vinegar flavored potato chips. Vinegar tastes sour, no? It's an acid: acetic acid, to be precise. Fortunately for the tissues in my mouth, it's not a very strong one.

The pH scale runs from 1 to 14. Neutral solutions (ph 7) have an equal number of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions. Water is one outstanding example.

Acidic solutions have pH values from 6 downward: the lower the number, the stronger the acid. Examples include acetic acid (vinegar), citric acid (lemon juice), ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Ant venom is methanoic acid; since acids are neutralized by bases, you can make a paste of baking soda and pat it on an ant sting and get some relief.

Basic solutions have pH values from 8 upward: the higher the number, the stronger the base. Common examples would be ammonia and baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3), and over-the-counter antacids. If you're using antacids these days, you're doing chemistry: you're getting relief from heartburn by neutralizing the acid in your stomach.

16. ### forget-me-notRookie

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see how awesome you are! i am feeling pretty pretty good about this test! hope i pass...however i want you to know i would give you a super-sized hug if i could thank you

17. ### forget-me-notRookie

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Jul 12, 2005

really cool website. i will hold onto this one for my future classroom days ahead.

18. ### forget-me-notRookie

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teachergroupie, i know i really layed it on you with those 21 big questions! thanks for the hands on answers. since i am a very visual learner (dyslexic to boot) i really love to be able to feel it and see it! forget-me-not

19. ### forget-me-notRookie

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Jul 12, 2005

this was such a great answer to my question. thanks so much!

20. ### forget-me-notRookie

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i just cut up a ping pong ball, and wow i can see what ...yes i was asking about. this is probably not going to be on the cset, lets hope, but just in case i wanted to know the stuff. thank you sooooo much

21. ### forget-me-notRookie

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Jul 12, 2005

what if they only have a choice for volcanos or subduction zones?

22. ### forget-me-notRookie

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yes it does...in fact i read this in the ed hersh books, but the way you worded it is much easier to understand... it is true teachergroupie that the terminology is what confuses you! why don't they say fcf: first common facter!? then you wouldn't be looking for a really big number! thanks again!

23. ### forget-me-notRookie

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yeah this does really help in fact, i remember doing a experiment with my methods class after reading the book cocoas ice. its about two friends who live far away from each other ( one in so. america, and the other in vermont) and they take cocoa and ice and make a treat using salt. this reminds me of that exactly! you are super...

24. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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Knowing that roots grow down and shoots grow up and that that's a response to gravity (rather than, say, light) is a really good thing. I can think of a lot of questions for which that knowledge would be useful Whether you need to know that's called geotropism is another matter, though if you dropped that term appropriately into a constructed response, you'd really convince the scorers that you know your stuff.

(-TROP- is Greek for 'turn' - a heliotrope 'sun-turn' turns toward the sun, the Tropic 'turning point' of Cancer is, if you will, the high-water point of the sun with respect to Earth's surface (that is, the most northerly set of points at which the sun at noon ever seems to be directly overhead, and that only on the day of the solstice, when the sun ('sol') seems to stand still). Plants are phototropic 'light-turning' and hydrotropic 'water-turning'. Venus fly traps are examples of haptotropism - 'turning toward touch' (wow, I didn't know about THAT one before...): a fly landing on the leaf triggers the reaction to close.)

25. ### forget-me-notRookie

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thank you again teachergroupie, is it possible to teach me how to get the bathtub volume and rate it fills question answered? i need to learn how to do this kind of a question. this one i can't find anywhere! plus if you take a 7 by 7 foot board through a 3x6.5 foot door, i understand that you square the 7 and make it 49ft. and then square the 3x6.5 you get 51.25. and that 51.25 is bigger than 49, and that you tilt the 7 foot board to get it through the door. how would i explain this kind of problem, and how would i know to square the 3x6.5? in this problem you actually square it to get the door through...am i studying too hard?

26. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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As to the tub, let me pose a different question. Suppose you have a standard rectangular fishtank that measures 2 feet across by 1 foot deep, and you know the volume is 3 cubic feet. How deep is that fishtank?

Use the volume formula: V = lwh. Plug in the numbers you know: 3 ft3 = 2 ft (w) 1 ft. (That's ft3 as in cubic feet, okay?) Then 3 ft3 = 2 ft2 (w). Divide both sides by 2 ft2, and you get 1.5 ft = w

Now suppose said fishtank was filled to the brim eight hours ago but immediately sprang a leak, and the liquid level is now down to the 8-inch mark from the bottom. How long in total will it take the fishtank to drain entirely?

Think first about the dimension in your volume calculation that's affected here. Strictly and solely height or depth, right? Because the tank is rectangular, length and width won't change. So we get to ignore them.

And now we have a rate problem, which you may solve either by using a relative of the distance formula, d = rt, or by using a proportion. I'm betting you'd rather use a proportion. So then figure out how far we've gotten and in how long - four inches down from the top in eight hours. That's a fraction: 4 in/8 hr. Now to drain the tank entirely, the liquid level has to drop a whole foot or 12 inches. That also is a fraction: 12 in/t hr. Set the two fractions equal to each other and you have a proportion: 4 in/8 hr = 12 in/t hr. Cross-multiply to clear the denominators, and you get 4t = 96. Divide both sides by 4, and you get t = 24 hours. There are several other ways to set this up as well.

27. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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Let me set a different problem. Suppose you're packing to move, and you have one box left that measures 8 in long x 8 in wide x 12 in high, and you have a plate that's 10" in diameter that you really want to protect. Can you fit the plate into the box? Well, if you're really packing, you're going to try angling the plate. That's basically what we're doing here, but with math.

If something like this comes up as a constructed response, the Prudent Student will mention the Pythagorean theorem. Remember that?

a2 + b2 = c2 (again, those 2's are supposed to be superscript)

We know that the box dimensions (the a and b) won't accommodate the plate, but maybe the box diagonal will - that's c. So let's try it: 8 x 8 + 64, so

a2 + b2 = c2
64 + 64 = c2
128 = c2
square root of 128 = c

I'm going to cheat, because I don't have a calculator handy (you will in the test, and it will have a square root key): the square root of 128 is a little over 11 inches (11 x 11 is 121), so the 8 x 8 x 12 box is plenty big (well, unless you count packing materials, and this is math, not reality, so not to worry).

28. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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Find an index card: the index card is a rectangle. Cut one corner off the index card, cutting in a straight line so that your cut goes through the adjacent corner. Take the triangle that results and stick it on the other end of the rectangle. You now have a parallelogram, no? And the triangle that you took off one end is the triangle you added to the other, so those triangles HAVE to be congruent (corresponding angles the same in degrees, corresponding sides the same in length).

Now what about the proof? Well, given a parallelogram... lop off the triangles so that you wind up with a rectangle inscribed inside it. By the rules of rectanglehood, the opposite pairs of sides (top and bottom, left and right - the way most of us draw parallelograms, we don't have to worry about left and right) are equal. Call the top and bottom lengths each a (that's a variable for a length).

At this point in the proof, one of two things can happen.

(a) The question itself tells us that the triangles at either end of the parallelogram are congruent, in which case we point out that the bottom side of the point-up triangle is congruent to the top side of the point-down triangle - call those lengths b. Then we note that the length of the top of the entire parallelogram is a + b, as is the length of the bottom of the entire parallogram. Furthermore, the long sides of the triangles are equal, since the long sides correspond (you can call them c if you like), and we're done.

(b) The question makes us prove the triangles are congruent. This one takes more work, but it isn't that much messier.

- To prove that two triangles are congruent, you need to know (or be able to figure out) the measure of two angles per triangle, and then you need to know (or be able to figure out) the length of one corresponding side per triangle. In this case, since the parallelogram can be cut up into two triangles plus a rectangle, and since we know that parallel sides of a rectangle are equal, we know that the sides we draw to cut off the triangles from the rectangle also have to be equal (because they're sides of the rectangle). We also know the angles we made in drawing those lines have to be 90 degree angles (because otherwise the rectangle inside those lines isn't really a rectangle).

- Now the test problem should give you at least one of the angles in the parallelogram. Suppose we're told that the upper right-hand acute angle (I'm assuming you drew your parallelogram leaning to the right) is 30 degrees. Well, we already know one of the other angles of its triangle is 90 degrees, so since the sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180, the third angle must be 60 degrees. So now we know about the right-hand triangle.

- And since the parallelogram's sides are parallel, we have a bunch of transversals, and then we get to talk about alternating angles. (Make sure you mention the word "transversal".) Alternating angles in a transversal are equal: if you extend the bottom line of the parallelogram to your right a bit, and if you extend the line on which the 60 degree angle is, you end up with an angle that, because it's an alternating angle with our 30 degree angle, also has to be 30 degrees. And then because the bottom line of the parallelogram also is part of a transversal, the far left angle of the parallelogram - and of the left-hand triangle also has to be 30 degrees.

- Well, we already knew that the left-hand triangle contains a right angle, and now we know that it contains a 30 degree angle, so we can figure out that the left-hand triangle's third angle is 60 degrees. And we already knew that the vertical sides are equal.

- So it follows that the triangles are congruent, and since the corresponding sides of congruent triangles have to be equal, therefore their longest sides have to be equal too.

All of this is MUCH easier to do if you draw a diagram - and if you follow the test problem's instructions. Make sure you label absolutely everything you can and use all the relevant technical terms - and your labeling can be a lot of your explanation.

29. ### EddieCompanion

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Jul 13, 2005

Good work both of you

Forget-me-not, thank you for posing these questions.
TeacherGroupie, thank you for taking so much time (and patience) in explaining the best way to get the answers. Not only has this thread helped forget-me-not, it has helped me tremendously.

TeacherGroupie, you should consider writing a CSET prep book. You have a great way of creating a picture in my head of how to go about thinking through a problem and acheiving a correct answer. Talented you are!

With gratitude (and fingers crossed for Saturday subtest II),
Eddie

30. ### TeacherGroupieModerator

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Eddie, you're making me blush.

(The trouble with writing a CSET book is that, done properly, it's never finished: there's always some amazingly cool new fact or approach. That, and the publishers want cash cows, which is why the existing prep books are dense and grey and under-illustrated. Yawwwwwwn!)

The single most important thing to do on CSET is to make sense. Think about how you'd TEACH the answer to a kid who's bright but a little stuck; use illustrations that shed light, from everyday life where possible, sprinkle with terminology so the kid won't be floored the next time the terms show up, and make sure you take breaks during the test so your brain doesn't rot on the vine. Assume that the questions really do make sense and really do have answers that you can find, because that way you're likelier to stick with them long enough to find the answers.

And then teach your future students to do likewise. The best test taking techniques are really all about critical thinking: working through a problem (think of it as a puzzle!) systematically, identifying the parts and how they go together or don't, and pointing out places where the logic doesn't cohere.

On Saturday know that someone's in your corner cheering for you. Make a list of someones beforehand if that will help, and when you get stuck you can think of them.

Best of thinking to you, Eddie, and to forget-me-not, and to all of you.

-TG

31. ### forget-me-notRookie

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Jul 13, 2005

you are the bomb! hey get some rest, i fell like i have worn you out! i will do what you said about the standardized tests with my students.....you betcha! thanks again! forget-me-not

32. ### forget-me-notRookie

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you are the bomb! hey get some rest, i feel like i have worn you out! i will do what you said about the standardized tests with my students.....you betcha! thanks again! forget-me-not

33. ### forget-me-notRookie

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you are the bomb! hey get some rest, i feel like i have worn you out! i will do what you said about the standardized tests with my students.....you betcha! thanks again! forget-me-not

34. ### cbickleyRookie

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Jul 14, 2005

Some clarification on hot spots.

The Hawaiian islands are the most famous hot spot. A hot spot occurs when there is a thinning of the Earth's crust and magma wells up to the surface. Hot spots are characterized by VOLCANIC activity. The hot spot stays in a fixed location as the tectonic plate continues it's motion above. Think of the Hawaiian island chain as the Pacific Plate moves in its northerly direction, the 'older islands were created by the same volcanics creating the "newer" islands. Kauai...older and more eroded... no new material. Big Island the newer island still forming... although a newer island is forming off its coast as the Pacific Plate continues it's motion. Tectonic plates move at roughly the growth of fingernails per year.

Hots spots have nothing to do with a subduction zone, although subduction zones also have associated volcanic activity as the plate "subducting" partially melts and magma well up beneath the overriding plate. Think "Casacade Mountains" of the Pacific Northwest. When an ocean plate collides with a continental plate, you get inland volcanoes. When ocean collides and subducts under ocean plate you get an island arc (Sumatra) of volcanoes BUT NOT HAWAIIAN ISLANDS and an oceanic trench.

For further clarification and great images check out:
http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/VolcanoTypes/island_oceanic_continental.html

Hope that helps. Good luck!

35. ### EddieCompanion

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Jul 14, 2005

Very cool website. I make connections more when I have visuals and this site does a good job. Thanks cbickley for sharing it.

36. ### TAMMYRookie

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Jul 14, 2005

I need help with the bathtub, flagpole and paramecium
also paul revere in III

37. ### forget-me-notRookie

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Jul 14, 2005

eddie, you are welcome! put us both in the light on sat so we can pass this one and move on toward...the journey is really worth it though....i have learned so much! truly, forget-me-not

38. ### forget-me-notRookie

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Jul 14, 2005

hi teachergroupie, i was thinking about this while i drew it out and cut it out, and what i discovered is that you can also mention that the two right triangles you cut from the paraellegram will form a perpendicular triangle, which is two right triangles..while my 15teen-year-old was testing me i discovered this. one more time..... making connections is really fun! gotta pass subtest II teachergroupie!!! i feel the pressure about now!!! truly, forget-me-not

39. ### forget-me-notRookie

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Jul 14, 2005

hi teachergroupie, i was thinking about this while i drew it out and cut it out, and what i discovered is that you can also mention that the two right triangles you cut from the paraellegram will form a perpendicular triangle, which is two right triangles..while my 15teen-year-old was testing me i discovered this. one more time..... making connections is really fun! gotta pass subtest II teachergroupie!!! i feel the pressure about now!!! truly, forget-me-not

40. ### CSETCSETCSETRookie

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Jul 11, 2005
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Jul 15, 2005

hi

Teachergroupie,

I hope you are still here when i decide to take the CSET II for multiple subject. Thank you again and keep it up.

Joined:
May 13, 2005
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29,706