Inexperienced teacher needs some help..please read my post

Discussion in 'Second Grade' started by JenK26, May 10, 2009.

  1. JenK26

    JenK26 Rookie

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    May 10, 2009

    Ok, so I just passed my last praxis test to be certified to teach grades 1-6 in Maryland. I am also certified in New Jersey but never got the chance to teach there because its so competitive and its all about who you know to get your foot in the door. I did my student teaching in a Kindergarten class but my cooperating teacher was a control freak and did not let go of the reins so I did not get the full teaching experience. I am now a teacher assistant in a second and third grade class so I am getting some experience but I am very nervous bc I will be applying to jobs but if the day comes when I get hired I am very nervous about one thing and could use some advice and tips. How do you teach reading to children and how do you help struggling readers. Also how do you start reading at the beginning of the year.
     
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  3. RainStorm

    RainStorm Aficionado

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    May 10, 2009

    How you start teaching reading all depends on what grade you are teaching. It is totally different in say Kindergarten, where you start with finding out if they can recognize letters, than in second, when you want to find out what level they are at, do they know vowel sounds, blends, digraphs, etc. Do they know basic reading strategies, and which ones do you need to introduce or revisit.

    I see this is in the 2nd grade forum. Is that the level you are planning on teaching? If it is, I can share some things.
     
  4. RainStorm

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    May 11, 2009

  5. RainStorm

    RainStorm Aficionado

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    May 11, 2009

    Jen,
    What you are asking is a huge answer.

    I'll break my answer down into a couple of parts so it won't be so long.


    We have 8 literacy components that we have to teach every single day. Our district is quite militant about it. They call it a "non-negiotiable." You either do it this way, or you find another job. In this, there is no compromise.

    Please realize that every district is different, so this is just one answser. Whatever district you decide to work for, you will need to adopt their method.

    In our district, students receive 2 to 2 ½ hours of daily Balanced Literacy Instruction in oral language development, reading, word study, and writing. This instruction is provided through direct whole group instruction, small group guided practice, and independent application of skills and strategies. This quality instruction integrates direct teaching and opportunities for practice within the context of quality literature, both fiction and nonfiction, and authentic reading and writing activities.

    Component 1 - Read-Aloud: The teacher reads aloud materials that are at students' listening level, but above their reading level. To model fluent , expressive reading

    Purpose:
    • To model comprehension strategy instruction, i.e. making connections, imagery, etc.

    • To build vocabulary

    • To improve listening skills

    • To analyze author's craft in writing

    • To provide extension activities for writing instruction

    Role of the Teacher "
    • To establish a literacy rich environment
    " To select interesting and engaging fiction and nonfiction texts that lend themselves to meaningful discussion
    " To model appropriate reading behaviors
    " To read a variety of genres, authors, illustrators, styles of writing, and content
    " Assessment Opportunity: Oral and written retellings, graphic organizers, and comprehension questions


    Component 2 - Shared Reading: A blend of modeled, shared, and interactive reading that is appropriate for all elementary grades.

    Each child has an individual copy of the text or is able to independently view the text on a chart, overhead or Smartboard.

    Purpose:
    • To directly and explicitly teach students how to read by modeling effective reading skills, strategies, and behaviors while making meaning the goal
    • To provide students with a model of fluent reading

    Role of the Teacher:
    • To model reading by reading and thinking aloud using an enlarged text, text on an overhead, or each student having a copy of the text
    • To discuss and practice the use of comprehension strategies to make and extend meaning
    • To model how to approach different genres and text types
    • To demonstrate and reinforce skills for vocabulary and word study
    • Assessment Opportunity: Oral and written retellings, graphic organizers, and comprehension questions

    Component 3 - Small Group Reading Instruction
    Includes:
    " Phonemic Awareness
    " Phonics Instruction
    " Word Recognition (Sight Words)
    " Concepts of Print
    " Fluency
    " Vocabulary
    " Comprehension

    In Guided Reading, books are at the child's instructional level (90-94% accuracy) and the children do the reading independently. To support, prompt, and scaffold the development of strategies and skills for independent reading

    Purpose:
    • To develop and monitor the student's use of before, during, and after reading strategies

    • To provide the students with opportunities to engage with text at their instructional level

    • To provide appropriate levels of support in the development of phonemic awareness, word recognition, phonics, and concepts about print

    • To assist in vocabulary development

    Role of the Teacher:
    • To help students talk, think, and question their way through the reading process
    " To model strategies and provide practice for meaning of text
    " To read and discuss a range of genre and text types
    " To support the development of students' vocabularies
    " To listen to students read orally and analyze miscues
    " Assessment Opportunity: Anecdotal notes, running records, PALS, spelling inventories, and DRA


    Component 4 - Independent Reading: Students read texts with 95-100% accuracy, choose their own books, and take responsibility for working through the challenges of the text.

    Purpose:
    • To provide opportunities for students to independently engage with the text, apply reading strategies and skills, develop fluency, and build their own confidence as readers

    Role of the Teacher:
    • To observe, acknowledge, respond, and hold conferences
    • To match text to students' independent level
    • To practice reading for enjoyment
    • Assessment Opportunity: Written responses, anecdotal notes

    Component 5 - Literacy Work Stations (Centers):
    A literacy work station is an area within the classroom where students work alone or interact with one another, using instructional materials to explore and expand their literacy.

    Purpose:
    • To reinforce and/or extend student learning through a variety of activities "To plan open-ended extension activities that support instruction from the other components of balanced literacy instruction

    Role of the Teacher:
    • To provide scaffolded activities to meet individual needs
    • Assessment Opportunity: Samples of student products such as written retellings, graphic organizers, and comprehension questions

    Component 6 - Systematic Word Study: Instruction used by the teacher to introduce, teach, and provide students with opportunities to practice using their knowledge of phonemic awareness, letter recognition, letter-sound relationships, phonics, spelling patterns, and words.

    Purpose:
    • To help students achieve the automatic word recognition and decoding skills necessary for fluency and proficient comprehension

    Role of the Teacher:
    • To help students progress through the various features within each stage of spelling development
    • To use activities such as creating word walls, word sorts, and making words to promote students' word recognition and spelling development
    • Assessment Opportunity: Word sorts, dictated sentences, anecdotal notes, PALS, and DSA

    Component 7 - Writer's Workshop: Instruction that supports student development through all stages of the writing process including planning, drafting, revising, editing and publishing. The teacher may offer Writer's Workshop several times throughout the week.

    Purpose:
    • To provide structured opportunities for students to write and receive feedback in order to learn about the writing process

    • To scaffold and support student writing with structured mini-lessons on written expression, organization, and mechanics and usage

    Role of the Teacher:
    • To use mini-lessons to teach students different aspects of the writing process
    • To use literature to model and stimulate students to think creatively about the author's craft
    • To circulate and assist students in their writing efforts
    • To model the entire writing process
    • To hold conferences with students about their writing
    • To provide students with vehicles to share their writing
    • Assessment Opportunity: Writing samples, student-teacher conferences, and peer conferences

    Component 8 - Interactive Writing: Interactive writing involves a sharing of the pen between teacher and children. Children actively plan and construct the text. For the most part, children also control the writing of the text. The teacher guides this process and provides appropriate pacing, assistance and instruction when needed.

    Purpose:
    • To provide focused writing instruction to students in order to lead them to independent writing
    • To focus on concepts and conventions of print, the sounds in words and the connection between sounds and letters
    • To produce longer pieces of writing that include dialogue, beginnings, endings, and multiple episodes

    Role of the Teacher:
    • To support and scaffold students' writing
    • To provide direct and explicit instruction in phonology and word analysis
    • To teach children how written text works
    • To teach children to make connections between what they read and write
    • Assessment Opportunity: Writing samples and teacher observations

    Other important components of a Balanced Literacy Classroom include:
    • Journal Writing
    • Poetry Reading
    • Guided Writing
    • Paired/ Partner Reading
    • Modeled Writing
    • Choral Reading
    • Independent Writing
    • Repeated Reading
     
  6. RainStorm

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    May 11, 2009

    REQUIRED DAILY SEGMENTS IN KINDERGARTEN

    WHOLE GROUP SHARED READING INSTRUCTION (30 minutes)

    Shared reading includes teacher led instruction in the following components:

    · Building background knowledge
    · Oral language development
    · Phonological awareness
    · Concepts of print
    · Alphabet recognition/principles
    · Letter-sound knowledge
    · Comprehension strategies and skills
    · Retelling
    · Sight vocabulary (word recognition skills)
    · Story elements

    SMALL GROUP INSTRUCTION/LITERACY WORK STATIONS (50-60 minutes)

    During 3 small groups of 20-30 minutes each, all students receive explicit reading instruction using materials at their instructional reading level with each person holding a copy of the text. These groups are based on district assessments.

    Small group instruction in which the teacher facilitates the student's usage of the
    following components:

    · Phonemic awareness
    · Letter recognition
    · Sound recognition
    · Concepts of print
    · Comprehension skills
    · Decoding strategies
    · Word recognition

    While the teacher is working with small groups the remainder of the class is
    working on:

    · Independent or collaborative reading & writing extension activities
    · Cooperative groups, work station activities, and/or peer conferences

    WRITING INSTRUCTION (30 - 45 minutes)

    Daily writing instruction includes the following components:

    · Shared/Interactive writing (whole group)
    · Daily focused mini-lessons (10 min.) by the teacher in composing and mechanics and usage
    · Independent time (30 - 45 min.) for writing and conducting research
    · Conferences with teacher
    · Sharing opportunities (5 - 10 min.) including author's chair, publishing parties, peer or group readings

    TEACHER READ-ALOUD (10-15 minutes)

    · Although this component is not necessarily a part of the reading block, it does provide an appropriate springboard for writing instruction. It should include rich discussions and higher level questioning.
     
  7. RainStorm

    RainStorm Aficionado

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    May 11, 2009

    REQUIRED DAILY SEGMENTS IN FIRST GRADE

    WHOLE GROUP SHARED READING INSTRUCTION (30 min.):

    Shared reading includes teacher led instruction in the following components:

    · Building background knowledge
    · Phonological awareness and letter/sound knowledge
    · Concepts of print and text structure
    · Comprehension strategies and skills
    · Retelling
    · Story elements
    · Word study
    · Word Recognition Skills

    SMALL GROUP INSTRUCTION (60-90 minutes):

    During 3 small groups of 20-30 minutes each, all students receive explicit reading instruction using materials at their instructional reading level with each person holding a copy of the text. These groups are based on district assessments.

    Small group instruction in which the teacher facilitates the student’s usage of the
    following components:

    · Phonemic awareness
    · Concepts of print and text structure
    · Comprehension strategy development
    · Retelling
    · Word Study
    · Vocabulary development
    · Word Recognition Skills

    While the teacher is working with small groups the remainder of the class is
    working on:

    · Independent or collaborative reading & writing extension activities
    · Cooperative groups, work station activities, and/or peer conferences

    WRITING INSTRUCTION (30-60 minutes):

    Daily writing instruction includes the following components:

    · Shared/Interactive writing (whole group)
    · Daily focused mini-lessons (10 – 15 min.) by the teacher in the three domains of composing, written expression, and mechanics and usage
    · Independent time (30 – 45 min.) for writing and conducting research
    · Conferences with teacher or peers
    · Sharing opportunities (5 – 10 min.) including author’s chair, publishing parties, peer or group readings

    TEACHER READ-ALOUD (10- 20 minutes):

    · Although this component is not necessarily a part of the reading block, it does provide an appropriate springboard for writing instruction. It should include rich discussions and higher level questioning
     
  8. RainStorm

    RainStorm Aficionado

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    May 11, 2009

    REQUIRED DAILY SEGMENTS IN SECOND GRADE

    WHOLE GROUP SHARED READING INSTRUCTION (30 min.):

    Shared reading includes teacher led instruction in the following components:

    · Building background knowledge
    · Phonological awareness and letter/sound knowledge
    · Concepts of print and text structure
    · Comprehension strategies and skills
    · Retelling/Summarizing
    · Story elements
    · Word study
    · Word Recognition Skills

    SMALL GROUP INSTRUCTION (60-90 minutes):

    During 3 small groups of 20-30 minutes each, all students receive explicit reading instruction using materials at their instructional reading level with each person holding a copy of the text. These groups are based on district assessments.

    Small group instruction in which the teacher facilitates the student's usage of the
    following components:

    · Phonemic awareness
    · Concepts of print and text structure
    · Comprehension strategy development
    · Retelling/Summarizing
    · Word Study
    · Vocabulary development
    · Word Recognition Skills

    While the teacher is working with small groups the remainder of the class is
    working on:

    · Independent or collaborative reading & writing extension activities
    · Cooperative groups, work station activities, and/or peer conferences

    WRITING INSTRUCTION (30-60 minutes):

    Daily writing instruction includes the following components:

    · Shared/Interactive writing (whole group)
    · Daily focused mini-lessons (10 - 15 min.) by the teacher in the three domains of composing, written expression, and mechanics and usage
    · Independent time (30 - 45 min.) for writing and conducting research
    · Conferences with teacher or peers
    · Sharing opportunities (5 - 10 min.) including author's chair, publishing parties, peer or group readings

    TEACHER READ-ALOUD (10- 20 minutes):

    · Although this component is not necessarily a part of the reading block, it does provide an appropriate springboard for writing instruction. It should include rich discussions and higher level questioning
     
  9. RainStorm

    RainStorm Aficionado

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    May 11, 2009

    DEFINING THE BUILDING BLOCKS

    PHONEMIC AWARENESS:

    Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify, hear, and manipulate the individual phonemes or sounds in spoken words. Manipulating the sounds in words includes blending, stretching, or otherwise changing words.
    Before children learn to read print, they need to become aware of how the sounds in words work. They must understand that words are made up of speech sounds, or phonemes.
    Phonemes are the smallest parts of sound in spoken words that make a difference in the word's meaning. For example, changing the first phoneme in the word hat from /h/ to /p/ changes the word from hat to pat, and so changes the meaning. (A letter between slash marks shows the phoneme, or sound, that the letter represents, and not the name of the letter. For example, the letter h represents the sound /h/.)

    Children can show us that they have phonemic awareness in several ways:
    " isolate individual sounds in words ("The first sound in van is /v/.)
    " identify which words in a set of words begin with the same sound ("Bell, bike, and boy all have /b/ at the beginning.")
    " categorize words with the same sounds ("Rug doesn't belong with bun and bus".)
    " blend the separate sounds in a word to say the word ("/m/, /a/, /p/ - map.")
    " segment a word into its separate sounds ("up - /u/, /p/.")

    Phonemic awareness is assessed primarily in kindergarten through the PALS K Rhyme and Beginning Sound Awareness items, and later in first grade and second grade for students who have not yet mastered the concepts through the PALS Level C tasks.

    CONCEPTS ABOUT PRINT (CAP):

    Concepts about print are conventions and characteristics of written language that children must attend to when learning to read and understand print. Examples include how to hold a book, where to start reading, and directional movement through the text. The Concepts About Print Test enables the teacher to discover what children already know about print, and what has yet to be learned. Many students come to school with limited experiences with print and require repeated explicit instruction in these concepts. Administration of the Concepts About Print Test will identify students in need of these intensive opportunities. The Concepts About Print Test is administered to all students in kindergarten, beginning with the first quarter. Once each concept has been mastered, further administration of that individual concept is not necessary.

    Teachers must be mindful that mastery of concepts about print is essential for our students to be able to attain future benchmarks in reading.
    WORD RECOGNITION:

    Word Recognition is the process of identifying words in print. Children who are ready to begin reading words have developed the following prerequisite skills:

    They understand that
    1. words can be spoken or written.
    2. print corresponds to speech.
    3. words are composed of phonemes (sounds), called phonological awareness.


    Children can increase their word recognition in several ways:
    " apply an understanding of the alphabetic principle by isolating and then blending individual phonemes ("/p/-/i/-/n/. Pin is spelled p-i-n.")
    " use their knowledge of known words to help them solve unknown words ("This word must be book because it reminds me of look.")
    " expand the number of words they can identify automatically, called their sight vocabulary
    ("Oh, I know that word - the!")

    PHONICS:
    Children's reading development is dependent on their understanding of the alphabetic principle - the idea that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken language. Learning that there are predictable relationships between sounds and letters allows children to apply these relationships to both familiar and unfamiliar words, and to begin to read with fluency. The goal of phonics instruction is to help children to learn and be able to use the alphabetic principle in both reading and writing.

    Current research verifies the direct correlation between phonics and a student's reading and writing development. In kindergarten, phonics knowledge is measured through the PALS kindergarten tasks of Alphabet Knowledge, Letter-Sounds and Spelling. The Breakthrough to Literacy Assessments are also used to monitor progress in phonics.
     
  10. RainStorm

    RainStorm Aficionado

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    FLUENCY:

    Fluency entails word recognition that is, except in rare instances, unconscious and automatic. Until a reader achieves fluency, comprehension is apt to suffer because too much conscious attention must be directed at word identification and too little attention can be paid to comprehending what is read (Walpole and McKenna, 2004).
    Fluency develops as a result of direct and explicit instruction. Fluency instruction should occur during shared and guided reading. Teachers can help students develop reading fluency through modeling, demonstrations, think-alouds and discussions about what makes a reader fluent (Johns and Berglund, 2002).

    Students who read and reread passages orally as they receive guidance and/or feedback become better readers. Repeated oral reading substantially improves word recognition, speed, and accuracy as well as fluency. Researchers have found several effective techniques related to repeated oral reading:

    " students read and reread a text a certain number of times or until a certain level of fluency is reached. Four rereadings are sufficient for most students; and
    " oral reading practice is increased through the use of audiotapes, tutors, peer guidance, or other means.

    Students develop fluency through activities for repeated oral reading practice:

    1. Student-adult reading--reading one-on-one with an adult, who provides a model of fluent reading, helps with word recognition, and provides feedback.
    2. Choral reading--reading aloud simultaneously in a group.
    3. Tape-assisted reading--reading aloud simultaneously or as an echo with an audio-taped model.
    4. Partner reading--reading aloud with a more fluent partner (or with a partner of equal ability) who provides a model of fluent reading, helps with word recognition, and provides feedback.
    5. Readers' theatre--the rehearsing and performing before an audience of a dialogue-rich script derived from a book.

    In addition, students need many opportunities to practice reading with a high degree of success. Students should practice orally reading texts at their independent levels. Text at the independent level will be reasonably easy for them to read and contain mostly words that they know or can decode easily.

    Monitoring student progress in reading fluency is useful in evaluating instruction, setting instructional goals, and motivating to students. Fluency development is measured in kindergarten through the PALS Concept of Word task and Breakthrough to Literacy Speak Time report.
     
  11. RainStorm

    RainStorm Aficionado

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    May 11, 2009

    VOCABULARY:

    Vocabulary refers to the words we must understand to communicate effectively. Vocabulary plays an essential role in the reading process, and contributes greatly to a reader's comprehension. Teachers must consider the four types of vocabulary: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

    A reader cannot understand a text without knowing what most of the words mean. Students learn the meanings of most words indirectly, through everyday experiences with oral and written language.

    Children learn word meanings indirectly in three ways:

    " engaging daily in oral language
    " listening to adults read to them
    " reading extensively on their own

    Direct instruction helps students learn difficult words and concepts that are not part of their everyday experiences. Direct instruction of vocabulary relevant to a given text leads to better reading comprehension.

    Children learn word meanings directly by:

    " learning specific words before reading.
    " repeated exposure to new words in different contexts.
    " learning word learning strategies such as:
    1. how to use dictionaries and other reference materials.
    2. how to use information about word parts (common prefixes and suffixes) to figure out the meaning of words in texts.
    3. how to use context clues to determine word meanings.

    Another way you can help students develop vocabulary is to foster word consciousness- an awareness of and interest in words, their meanings, and their power. Word- conscious students know many words and use them well.

    Students develop word consciousness by:
    " appreciating how authors use words to convey particular meanings.
    " exploring words by engaging in word play.
    " searching for examples of a word's usage in their everyday lives.

    In our district, many of our students are inherently at a disadvantage in vocabulary development. Continuous and repeated exposure to enriched literature and great conversation will increase student achievement and foster a love of words.
     
  12. RainStorm

    RainStorm Aficionado

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    May 11, 2009

    COMPREHENSION:

    Comprehension is the reason for reading. If readers can read the words but do not understand what they are reading, they are not really reading.

    To be able to accurately understand written material, children need to be able to:

    1. decode what they read.
    2. make connections between what they read and what they already know.
    3. think deeply about what they have read.

    One big part of comprehension is having a sufficient vocabulary, or knowing the meanings of enough words.

    ¢ Good readers are purposeful. Good readers have a purpose for reading. For example, they may read to find out how to play a game or read a menu from a restaurant.

    ¢ Good readers are active. Good readers think actively as they read. To make sense of what they read, good readers engage in a complicated process. Using their experiences and knowledge of the world, their knowledge of vocabulary and language structure, and their knowledge of reading strategies (or plans), good readers make sense of the text and know how to get the most out of it. They know when they have problems with understanding and how to resolve these problems as they occur.

    Comprehension strategies are conscious plans or sets of steps that good readers use to make sense of text. Comprehension strategy instruction helps students become purposeful, active readers who are in control of their own reading comprehension.

    Effective comprehension strategy instruction is explicit, or direct. Research shows that explicit teaching techniques are particularly effective for comprehension strategy instruction. In explicit instruction, teachers tell readers why and when they should use strategies, what strategies to use, and how to apply them.

    The steps of explicit instruction are
    " Direct explanation. The teacher explains to students why the strategy helps comprehension and when to apply the strategy.
    " Modeling. The teacher models, or demonstrates, how to apply the strategy, usually by "thinking aloud" while reading the text that the students are using.
    " Guided practice. The teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy.
    " Application. The teacher helps students practice the strategy until they can apply it independently.

    Teachers should emphasize text comprehension from the beginning, rather than waiting until students have mastered "the basics" of reading. Instruction at all grade levels can benefit from showing students how reading is a process of making sense out of text, or constructing meaning. Beginning readers, as well as more advanced readers, must understand that the ultimate goal of reading is comprehension.

    You can highlight meaning in all interactions with text. Talk about the content, whether reading aloud to students or guiding them in reading on their own. Model, or "think aloud," about your own thinking and understanding as you read. Lead students in a discussion about the meaning of what they are reading. Help students relate the content to their experience and to other texts they have read. Encourage students to ask questions about the text.
     
  13. Nole.Diva

    Nole.Diva New Member

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    Mar 3, 2010

    Thanks Rain !! Good Info :hugs:
     
  14. WildernessVoice

    WildernessVoice New Member

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    May 7, 2012

    Reading: Slow learners.
    The Emperor’s New Clothes (and I’m the little boy).
    Preamble: Initial consonants.
    There are those that do, and those that don’t. Blend, that is.
    Continuants do, Plosives don’t.
    Continuants continue as long as you have breath: c in Cecil, s, z; f, v; l; m; n; r; th. Special guests: initial w, y.
    Plosives don’t: b, p; d, t; hard g (as in goat), c (cat), k; ch, j; h.
    Hence:
    We can guide the child into blending th and aw to get thaw.
    But to get car, we must:
    Have the child say ar in front of a mirror, paying attention to mouth shape.
    Then: “Start with c [the k sound] but make sure you end up with ar!” (And demonstrate it.)
    Recommended: Flash cards of car, tar, bar, jar; tar, too, tea.
    Now go ahead and shoot me down in flames — insist that the Emperor IS wearing clothes!
     
  15. AlwaysAttend

    AlwaysAttend Groupie

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    May 7, 2012

    RainStorm has given you a wealth of info from someone who gained it from years of experience. I think what you are looking for is an introduction. To gain a very simple understanding of the way in which we teach students to read you should pick up The Threads of Reading: Strategies for Literacy Development by Karen Tankersly. It is based on K-3 and step by step explains literacy development in about 100 very readable pages, some of which are just strategies to teach the theory. This is not a textbook so it is not a boring book that you will have to force yourself to read. It is also only around 10 bucks. Trust me, it is what you are looking for. Once you gain a basic understanding you can start to comprehend the more detailed info.

    The best book purchase I ever made.

    PS, make sure you make notes in the margins because you will want to refer to this book regularly and the notes will come in handy.
     
  16. JustMe

    JustMe Guru

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    May 7, 2012

    Cracks me up how these old threads are revived! :)
     
  17. EdEd

    EdEd Aficionado

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    May 8, 2012

    Thanks for the heads up JustMe - was about to respond with thoughts! Would be interesting if the OP was still active on the forum, how things have gone - what processes s/he learned to teach, and how things are now.
     

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